Historians regard this as a turning point in Christianity's fortune. The crusaders became so deprived at times they are thought to have resorted to cannibalism.
In the context of the 19th century, the Europeans' invocation of the past built upon this existing memory and meant that the image of hostile, aggressive westerners seeking to conquer Muslim or Arab lands became extremely potent for Islamists and Arab Nationalist leaders alike, and Saladin, as the man who recaptured Jerusalem, stands as the man to aspire to.
Fighting lasted until when at the Battle of Tannenberg forces from Poland and Lithuania defeated the Teutonic Knights.
For his part, Saladin had suffered a series of military setbacks but, crucially, he had held onto Jerusalem for Islam. Despite superior numbers, Kerbogha's army — which was divided into factions and surprised by the commitment and dedication of the Franks — retreated and abandoned the siege.
He raged at the capture of the holy places and the treatment given to Christians, and ordered a war to restore Christianity.
The word became a shorthand for a cause with moral right, be it in a non-military context, such as a crusade against drink, or in the horrors of the First World War. The French were led by the very devout Louis IXking of France, and his ambitious brother Charles who was keen to expand his secular territories.
The Orders were founded to help look after pilgrims; in the case of the Hospitallers, through healthcare; in that of the Templars, to guard visitors on the road to the River Jordan.
History The first holy war was probably in October CE when the Roman emperor Constantine saw a vision of the cross in the sky with this inscription "in hoc signo vinces" in this sign you will win. The reforming movement coalesced around Pope Leo IXintent on abolishing simony and clerical marriage and implementing a college of cardinals responsible for electing future popes.