Neurophysiological conditions and crime

MZ twins are genetically identical, while fraternal twins only share half their genes.

biosocial theory pdf

Rowe, David and Bill Gully. Jealousy, for example, is a human emotion that may have evolved in order to keep families together and increase the probability of reproduction see Seigel and McCormick, For instance, examining the limbic system in psychopaths and comparing to non-psychopathic controls, functional magnetic-resonance imaging scans fMRIs detected both structural and functional differences between the experimental and control groups; specifically, activity within the amygdala and hippocampus was reduced in the psychopath group, as was the volume of the amygdala reduced by seventeen to nineteen percent Beaver, Horney, Julie.

A number of important studies have found a significant relationship between hypoglycemia and violence — including assault, homicide and rape. In its most serious form, MDB is associated with severe anti-social behaviour, including hyperactivity, poor attention span, temper tantrums and aggressiveness.

From such an example, biosocial criminologists acknowledge that the environment alone does not create the expression of aggression within individuals, but instead the development of aggressive behavior is partially driven by biological factors in conjunction with environmental influences.

Researchers have tried to overcome this obstacle by comparing identical MZ twins with fraternal DZ twins of the same gender.

Biological and biosocial theories of crime

They further maintain that certain biological abnormalities or physical disabilities may make some individuals more prone to violence or aggression than others. Rossi Ed. To support their argument, they often point to the fact that, once their genetic codes were broken, a number of inherited traits that cause disease have been successfully treated with medication. Whitman in his final note complained of inability to control his thoughts and requested an autopsy, which revealed a brain tumor in the hypothalamus region of his brain, a growth that, some hypothesized, put pressure on his amygdala. This hypothesis is also supported by research that suggests that identical twins behave more similarly in early childhood and as adults than they do during adolescence. The relationship between lead exposure and homicide. As you can see below, both structural and functional abnormalities tend to affect the same areas of the brain. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, have also been repeatedly linked to a variety of antisocial behaviors. Criminals, he believed, could be identified by physical traits, such as a large jaw and sloping forehead.

Barnes, J. Alcohol and violence and the possible role of Serotonin. Arousal theory and the religiosity-criminality relationship.

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Chapter 1: Biosocial Theory