The study of stochastic i. For regulatory networks, do features emerge primarily through gene duplication with subsequent neofunctionalization, what are the fitness and energetic costs of such duplication events, or are there other more complex processes at work [ 2627 ]?
Complexity and emergent properties Many of the most-critical aspects of how a cell works result from the collective behaviour of many molecular parts, all acting together. All of these systems exhibit properties that depend on the physiology, biochemistry, and development of individual organisms, but particular characteristics of the systems emerge depending on the interactions among organisms or interactions between organisms and their environments.
Biological organisms are very complex, and their many parts interact in numerous ways. Competition among regulatory networks may lead to selection for robustness, the development of strain immunity, or altered host control.
Co-infections may occur, in which case another phage with a related but genetically distinct encoding of a regulatory network may be present. Coughlin, Teri W. It occurs when one organism takes benefits by interacting with another organism by which the host organism is not affected.