Function of intonation
A level tone indicates neutrality and disinterest. These are obviously relevant to the act of speaking but could not themselves properly be regarded as components of speech.
Importance of intonation
Thornbury, S. Thus, questions are begun with a higher pitch than are declarative sentences; pitch rises and then falls in all sentences; and in yes—no questions and unmarked questions pitch rises at the end of the sentence, while for declarative sentences and A-not-A questions the sentence ends at very low pitch. We also use intonation to distinguish clause types, such as question vs. It enables us to signal whether or not we have come to the end of the point we are making; whether we want to keep talking or are ready to give another speaker a turn. For declaratives or wh-questions with a final decline, the decline is located as a step-down to the syllable after the last prominently stressed syllable, or as a down-glide on the last syllable itself if it is prominently stressed. This has been called the accentual function of intonation. These are obviously relevant to the act of speaking but could not themselves properly be regarded as components of speech. Pitch ranges themselves, although usually different from speaker to speaker, are still to some extent physiologically conditioned, e. A-not-A questions go from 6 to 9 to 2 to 1. The most obvious boundary we may find between tone groups is a pause. The pitch movement on the final element is usually assumed to be a fall, marking the end of the list, but could potentially also be a rise, if the list is part of a question that offers a choice of alternatives. We do this by tonicity and by the placement of other accents.
Partly, their characteristic intonation. Another example is Has 2 the 2 plane 3 left 3 already 3, 3, 3?
What is intonation
People who study human behavior use the term body language for such activity. Thornbury, S. These boundaries are usually marked by shorter pauses, final lengthening and possibly a relatively slight reset only. A full ToBI transcription includes not only the above phonological elements, but also the acoustic signal on which the transcription is based. The grammatical function. The psychological function. Rise 3 Most of the functions attributed to rises are nearer to grammatical than attitudinal, as in the first three examples given below; they are included here mainly to give a fuller picture of intonation function. For contrastive purpose, however any word may become the bearer of tonic syllable. Perhaps the best way to start on this is to ask ourselves what would be lost if we were to speak without intonation: you should try to imagine speech in which every syllable was said on the same level pitch, with no pauses and no changes in speed or loudness. Intonation helps to produce the effect of prominence on syllables that need to be perceived as stressed, and in particular the placing of tonic stress on a particular syllable marks out the word to which it belongs as the most important in the tone-unit.
Certainly there is overlap between these two functions. As we have already seen in our discussion of stress, pitch movements or their absence are a very important means of providing accentuation or de-accentuation.
Form and function of intonation slideshare
The vertical level demonstrates four different types of accentuations in Punjabi: Normal statement. The indexical function. The first experiment at the horizontal level is conducted to investigate three utterance types: declarative, imperative, and interrogative. In the work of Trager and Smith  there are four contrastive levels of pitch: low 1 , middle 2 , high 3 , and very high 4. It would be reasonable to suggest that while word stress was independent of intonation, the placement of the tonic stress was a function the accentual function of intonation. Another example is Has 2 the 2 plane 3 left 3 already 3, 3, 3? Later, it becomes evident that the message has not been fully understood, and neither participant in the conversation knows why. This encompasses the different ways of signalling the attitude of a particular speaker towards an interlocutor. Download ppt "The Functions of Intonation" Similar presentations. We do this by tonality. The approach is sometimes referred to as autosegmental. We have already seen how the study of sequences of tone-units in the speech of one speaker can reveal information carried by intonation which would not have been recognized if intonation was analyzed only at the level of individual tone-units. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. Rising tones are indicative of politeness, diffidence, and are inquiring. Regulating of conversational behavior by indicating, e.
Regulating of conversational behavior by indicating, e. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Some writers attach the word accent to stress.
based on 66 review