Educational psychology and learning resources self

Obviously a child does not begin life with a lot of initial language skill, but this fact is why interactions need to be scaffolded with more experienced experts— people capable of creating a zone of proximal development in their conversations and other interactions.

educational psychology theories and applications for learning and teaching

There is evidence that the moral reasoning described in stage theories is not sufficient to account for moral behavior. Social constructivists such as Vygotsky, on the other hand, emphasize the importance of social interaction in stimulating the development of the child.

Alfred Binet[ edit ] Alfred Binet published Mental Fatigue inin which he attempted to apply the experimental method to educational psychology.

He called such support instructional scaffolding—literally meaning a temporary framework like the ones used to construct buildings and that allow a much stronger structure to be built within it.

educational psychology pdf

Thorndike's research with Robert Woodworth on the theory of transfer found that learning one subject will only influence your ability to learn another subject if the subjects are similar.

A student is thought to interpret a problem by assigning it to a schema retrieved from long-term memory. In contrast, when students attribute failure to lack of effort, and effort is perceived as controllable, they experience the emotion of guilt and consequently increase effort and show improved performance.

In more everyday, non-behaviorist terms, the cue allows the student to learn when it is acceptable to speak, and when it is not.

Application of educational psychology in teaching and learning

Parents and teachers, it would seem, are left lingering on the sidelines, with few significant responsibilities for helping learners to construct knowledge. Some other educational topics they spoke about were the effects of music, poetry, and the other arts on the development of individual, role of teacher, and the relations between teacher and student. Education aims to help students acquire knowledge and develop skills which are compatible with their understanding and problem-solving capabilities at different ages. Motivation can have several impacting effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter: [46] Provide direction towards goals Enhance cognitive processing abilities and performance Direct behavior toward particular goals Lead to increased effort and energy Increase initiation of and persistence in activities Educational psychology research on motivation is concerned with the volition or will that students bring to a task, their level of interest and intrinsic motivation , the personally held goals that guide their behavior, and their belief about the causes of their success or failure. The principles underlying intra- and inter-individual differences could be educationally useful, because knowing how students differ in regard to the various dimensions of cognitive development, such as processing and representational capacity, self-understanding and self-regulation, and the various domains of understanding, such as mathematical, scientific, or verbal abilities, would enable the teacher to cater for the needs of the different students so that no one is left behind. In addition to basic abilities, the individual's personality traits are also important, with people higher in conscientiousness and hope attaining superior academic achievements, even after controlling for intelligence and past performance. Eventually, this experience with early education would lead to a "wholesome person characterized by morality.

This causes the student to read through the material without absorbing the information and being able to retain it. A child may be able to think abstractly about mathematics, but remain limited to concrete thought when reasoning about human relationships.

Stated in this general form, individual constructivism is sometimes associated with a well-known educational philosopher of the early twentieth century, John Dewey — A student who stops receiving gold stars or compliments for prolific reading of library books, for example, may extinguish i.

Partly for this reason, his theory is often considered less about learning and more about development, or long-term change in a person resulting from multiple experiences that may not be planned deliberately.

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Learning Theories and Models summaries