Correspondingly, populist leaders treat opponents not as adversaries in a fair and equal competition, but as profound threats. Branding rivals "enemies of the people," they seek all means to defeat and marginalize them.
Alberto Fujimori's r. To see even Argentina, with its tragic history, being lured by the siren song of personalistic plebiscitarianism is worrisome indeed.
In the military junta handed power to a democratically elected government which marked the end of authoritarian rule in Argentina. In the years since the Cold War's end, international pressures in favor of democracy have come to the fore. Moreover, these presidents have relied not only on performance-based legitimacy, but also on durable identity-based appeals that cast them as champions of, for example, informal workers, barrio residents, or indigenous people.
Incumbent governments have jailed opposition politicians or driven them out of the country in Bolivia, and have attacked and intimidated civil society in Ecuador and Nicaragua.
Corporatist theories, which gained popularity in the s, emphasized this Iberian heritage of authoritarianism to explain underdevelopment in Latin America. A country that had one of the longest democratic traditions in Latin America now became a prime example of an authoritarian regime that suppressed the basic principles of liberal democracy, including values of individual freedom, civil liberties, social and economic equality, and free elections.
Additional topics. Petras and Frank T. By contrast, left-wing populism has a more negative balance sheet. Left-wing populism and soft authoritarianism are unlikely to infect those countries.