An evaluation of the original objectives of the treaty of versailles

In the inevitable relaxation of tension some key decision-makers fell ill during a virulent influenza epidemic, its spread aided by the massive wartime movement of people and goods, which proved a far greater killer than the war itself.

An evaluation of the original objectives of the treaty of versailles

The British Dominions, their identities tempered by war, expected greater autonomy, whilst Irish nationalists sought independence. Sensing victory before American armies could be ready, Germany now shifted force to the Western Front and tried to overwhelm the Allies. Then discuss the sections on reparations, especially Articles The French and British supported secret treaties and naval blockades, which Wilson opposed. They possess a vast propaganda machine designed to convince public opinion that all their wars are just wars, for the defence of peace, civilisation, democracy and culture. After all, following the defeat of France in the Napoleonic Wars, the Frenchman Tallyrand was invited to participate in the Congress of Vienna, where he used his considerable skills to extract concessions for France. The Rhineland was to become a demilitarised zone administered by Great Britain and France jointly. German economic dominance would be tantamount to victory. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, and provide an army when needed. III, New York , pp. When the German government asked U. Amidst the bloody wreckage of Europe, many people looked to the transatlantic giant for some signs of hope. Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts. Clemenceau accepted the offer, in return for an occupation of the Rhineland for fifteen years and that Germany would also demilitarise the Rhineland. What other goals does he link to the elimination of the treaty?

It outlined a policy of free tradeopen agreementsand democracy. Britain favoured modifying the terms in the hope of reconciling Germany, France preferred rigid enforcement to nullify German power.

Germany was not invited to attend the conference at Versailles.

Treaty of versailles definition

By comparing the numbers of casualties and total troops mobilized, students will also have a basis for understanding the differing positions taken by the countries that drew up the Treaty. He enjoyed greater support to extend international law beyond prosecuting persons accused of wartime operational crimes to include arraignments of those responsible for the political and military decisions which had occasioned the war and the manner in which it had been fought. But fundamental contradictions were gnawing at the entrails of the Weimar Republic. Results Germany lost 13 percent of its land, 12 percent of its people, 48 percent of its iron resources, 15 percent of its agricultural production, and 10 percent of its coal. They looked to Moscow for advice, but Lenin was incapacitated by his final illness and Trotsky was also ill. He was successful in moving the Italian frontier to the Brenner with the acquisition of South Tyrol from Austria, which consigned some , German-speakers to Italian rule. The redrawing of the world map at these conferences created many critical conflict-prone international contradictions; these became one of the causes of World War II. Questions for Discussion Read the document introduction and the transcript excerpt and view the images. His argument was that the burden of reparations would ruin Germany, drag down the rest of Europe, and lead to revolution: If the distribution of the European coal supplies is to be a scramble in which France is satisfied first, Italy next, and every one else takes their chance, the industrial future of Europe is black and the prospects of revolution very good. The minor powers attended a weekly "Plenary Conference" that discussed issues in a general forum but made no decisions. Besides teaching students about the contents of the Treaty of Versailles, this lesson raises challenging questions about historical causality and responsibility. What is certain is that his demagogic appeals for self-determination were aimed at breaking up the old European empires, and that this was in the interests of American imperialism.

The Russian Revolution had a powerful effect on the German working class, which rose in revolution exactly twelve months after October.

This lack of important Allied incursions contributed to the popularization of the Stab-in-the-back myth in Germany after the war. The German delegates were presented with a fait accompli.

Treaty of versailles facts

White Russia: A loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War — and to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War. The same was true of France. However, supporters of Versailles like to look at the peace treaty Germany imposed on Soviet Russia, which took vast areas of land, population, and wealth, and point out that country was no less keen to grab things. Also have students examine photographs of destruction along the western front in France. Page 18 of 19 I have never been asked", Clemenceau inquired. The German bourgeoisie, alarmed at the growing strength of the Socialists and Communists, began to prepare for the final showdown with the working class. The speech made by Wilson took many domestic progressive ideas and translated them into foreign policy free trade, open agreements, democracy, and self-determination.

Four great empires that for centuries had dominated eastern and central Europe and the Middle East had collapsed. The Soviet Union does not participate in the work of the League because the Soviet Union is fighting with all its energy against all preparations for imperialist war.

Treaty of versailles conditions

Why is Hitler so vitriolic concerning the Weimar Republic? He sought a treaty which would inflict stern justice but without alienating the Germans unnecessarily, especially by assigning too many to foreign rule. He naturally wanted the return of the rich and industrial land of Alsace-Lorraine, which had been stripped from France by Germany in the Franco-Prussian War of Orlando joined them from 24 March It seems that they naively expected to be invited into the Conference for some kind of negotiations. The worldwide struggle for markets would bring them into conflict, just as it had with Germany. At first, they listened in silence as he lectured them on the need for morality in world affairs, justice and humanity for defeated enemies and the right of self-determination for small nations. Was it reasonable to establish the demilitarized Rhineland buffer zone? The German and Austrian governments had to acknowledge and strictly respect the independence of Austria. And they lecture us on justice and humanity! Whatever may be the imperfections of the Treaty from a political or economic standpoint, Woodrow Wilson did not fail. An old, sick and embittered man, Wilson refused to support the treaty with any of the reservations imposed by the Senate. Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts. Analyze change and continuity in historical eras. The second one resulted in the deaths of 55 million people, the big majority of them civilians.

The leaders also had domestic responsibilities as they sought to manage the transition from war to peace. Among its successes were its fight against the international trade in opium and sexual slavery and its work to alleviate the plight of refugees, particularly in Turkey in the period up to If Russia, standing alone, could endure the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk for several months, to the advantage of the revolution, there is nothing impossible in a Soviet Germany, allied with Soviet Russia, enduring the existence of the Treaty of Versailles for a longer period, to the advantage of the revolution.

treaty of versailles document

It was an almost impossible task.

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The Great War: Evaluating the Treaty of Versailles