A discussion on the socialization element of individuals based on masculinity and femininity concept
In an analysis of middle school children's gender identities, Burke and Tully first collected sets of adjectives from children that the children themselves used to describe the images of boys and girls. However, poorly-constructed qualitative research can lead to reproduction of race and class biases if findings are inappropriately generalized.
Sociological Perspectives on Sex and Sexuality Sociologists representing all three major theoretical perspectives study the role that sexuality plays in social life today.
How does gender socialization impact society
North American culture is particularly restrictive in its attitudes about sex when it comes to women and sexuality. Though the medical emphasis in some conversations about gender identity is frequently scrutinized by sociologists, there is clearly some biological basis to gender, even if it has more to do with appearances and social presentation than identity formation. We now understand that femininity and masculinity are not innate but are based upon social and cultural conditions. Evidence of gender stratification is especially keen within the economic realm. The period of adolescence is most closely associated with the teenage years, although its physical, psychological and cultural expressions can begin earlier and end later. These legal issues reveal that even human experience that is assumed to be biological and personal such as our self-perception and behaviour is actually a socially defined variable by culture. The key in this is one's self-meanings Osgood et al. Sense of Identity Unlike the conflicting aspects of self-concept, identity represents a coherent sense of self stable across circumstances and including past experiences and future goals. Male participation in domestic activity would be only partially desired and socially acceptable. Looking from month to month or week to week, there was almost no observable change. Individuals internalize social expectations for gender norms and behave accordingly. Terman and Miles's masculinity—femininity M—F scale became a model for M—F scales for more than three decades see Morawski for a review. There is a long history of gender stratification in Canada. Since the early years of schooling are more likely to be "feminized" because there are more female than male teachers Lipman-Blumen , children with a more feminine identity will likely perform better in a "feminine" institution.
West and Fenstermaker conclude that doing gender involves different versions of accountability, depending on women's "relational position" to white men. Recent trends include the finding that married couples have sex more frequently than do singles and that 27 percent of married couples in their 30s have sex at least twice a week NSSHB Photo couresy of Wikimedia Commons.
Levant and Kathleen Alto write: A recent synthesis of meta-analytic studies of gender differences provides strong evidence for a social construct understanding of gender. Some scientists argue that the sense of confusion is a biological result of the pre- and post-natal swinging of hormone levels and genetic regulation.
These performances normalize the essentialism of gender categories. Social constructionism seeks to blur the binary and muddle these two categories, which are so frequently presumed to be essential.
Many women had to assume the role of breadwinner or modern hunter and gatherer alongside their domestic role in order to stabilize a rapidly changing society. For example, women may be thought of as too timid or weak to ride a motorcycle.
Social norms surrounding family life have, traditionally, encouraged sexual activity within the family unit marriage and have discouraged activity outside of it premarital and extramarital sex.
Benefits of gender socialization
These shifts in symbolic meaning apply to family structure as well. This is the standard model of studying deviance in order to understand the norm that undergirds the deviant activity. Functionalists such as Talcott Parsons et al. This in turn points to the situational nature of gender rather than its inherent, essentialist and individual nature. It is also thrown into question by the actions of peers and family who respond with concern or censure when a girl is not feminine enough or a boy is not masculine enough. They enabled a clear division of labour between spouses, which ensured that the ongoing functional needs of the family were being met. Julia T. The hijra form a third gender, although they do not enjoy the same acceptance and respect as individuals who identify along the gender binary. This is certainly relevant to the discussion of masculinity and femininity. Certainly, gender is internalized and acquires significance for the individual; some individuals want to feel feminine or masculine. These included the assumptions that masculinity and femininity were: 1 deep-seated, enduring characteristics of people, 2 not readily apparent in overt behavior, 3 linked to mental health an incongruence in sex and masculinity and femininity signaled problems in psychological adjustment , and 4 opposite ends of a continuum Morawski Like psychoanalytic theory, it suggests that certain critical events have a lasting effect on gender-identity development, but these events are seen as cognitive rather than psychosexual in origin. One way children learn gender roles is through play.
These examples from Sweden, Chile, and Japan hardly scratch the surface of demonstrating some of the extreme variation in gender roles worldwide.
based on 4 review